DEMOCRATIZATION OF SPAIN AND THE EUROPEAN UNION
Transition period is the historical period where Spain leaves the dictatorship and begins to be governed by a Constitution, establishing a social state and a democratic country. This period goes from 1975, year of the death of Francisco Franco, to 1986 with the entry of Spain into the European Community. During the last years of the dictatorship, there are some important facts as the murder of Carrero Blanco (potential successor of Francisco Franco) by ETA (terrorist organization) and the execution of two members of ETA and three of FRAP (Revolutionary and Antifascist Patriotic Front) by the Dictatorship in 1975.
On 20th November 1975 and after the death of Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos I de Borbón is proclaimed King of Spain, being his mission the implantation of the democracy in Spain. Juan Carlos counts on ample support both within and outside of the country even from the Dictatorship, although he had to get over the most difficult stage: the stress caused by radical groups from left winger revolutionaries and right winger fascists and the army. Adolfo Suarez took a main role as a President: to establish Democracy as the common main goal between the leaders of the different political parties including parties from the Franco regime.
The situation was characterized by the tension: in 1976 around 6000 workers started a strike in Vitoria that will finish as a general strike two months later. 1977 is an important year for the Democracy: The law of political reform, which removes obstacles from the Franco regime, was approved. Political parties were legalized, even Communist party which was legalized during Easter because the army was unready due to the holidays. At the same time, “the Movement”, the unique party from the Dictatorship, is dissolved the elections are prepared. The first democratic elections since 1936. The new parliament began working on the new Constitution which will be submitted to referendum in 1979. The establishment and normalization of Democracy appeared with the historic elections of 1982, where a Socialist party (PSOE) achieved absolute majority and governed until 1989.
GERMAN RECREATION of this Spanish historic periodArticle made by German Participants
We started by focusing on the way Spain developed into a democracy after the decades under Franco. Transition period was characterized by the tension; In 1977 the law of political reform, which removes obstacles from the Franco regime, was approved. The first democratic elections since 1936 took part and the new parliament began working on the new Constitution which will be submitted to referendum in 1979. The establishment and normalization of Democracy appeared with the historic elections of 1982, where a Socialist party (PSOE) achieved absolute majority and governed until 1989. Like we proceeded during the previous module, we thought about terms we link to democracy and about the way they shape societies.
The way Spanish history was shaped by joining the European Union and the advantages Spain gained as an EU member state can be compared to what Germany has experienced in the past decades.
We finished the module by creating a collage, using the pictures capturing the most important events.
“It was the mix of research you had to do on your own, the theoretical side and the collage what I liked.- Anonymous
“It was interesting to see that the way in which Spain has developed over the past decades compared to Germany.”-Anonymous
ITALIAN RECREATION of this Spanish historic periodArticle made by Italian Participants
We began by studying the meaning of the referendum and by understanding how it works in Italy and when this political tool is used. Then we reflected on the fact that the referendum is an opportunity, a right which is given to people for expressing their opinions.
The expression of our own thought doesn’t produce positive effects on real life if we aren’t actively involved in deciding what we think it’s right; we wouldn’t be free if we couldn’t express ourselves.
“Freedom is participation”: we used this slogan as a lead to look for images which represented it in our opinion. To do this, we used computers and tablets. We didn’t limit ourselves to images from the internet but also used our own.
Then we looked for images with which we could express what “Freedom is participation”
We enjoyed researching it a lot because we studied Law and Rights in a less boring way and had the opportunity to realize how we, young people, can change and better ours and other people’s future if we don’t only watch, but we actively participate in the teamwork, too.
“Freedom of expression does not exist anywhere, we have to remember it.” Anonymous
“The topic was very interested. I talked about it at home and my parents were pleasantly surprised”. Anonymous
SPANISH RECREATION of this Spanish historic periodArticle made by Spanish Participants
Today we talked about how Spain has become part of the European Union. Since January the 1st in 1986, Spain and Portugal joines the European Union. For us it is strange because we were born after this process and the only thing we remember is the change of currency from Pesetas to Euros.
We have carried out this work as in the previous session. At the very beginning, we saw a documentary and we focused on the most important moments of this change. Then, we looked for the most significative images and we made a montage. We had a lot of fun; On the one hand because it was an opportunity to learn new things, that concern us very closely; On the other hand because we did it in a fun and different way than just reading things on books
“It was very interesting to know more about Spain’s entry into the European Union”- David.
“It was very useful be¬couse it’s a part of history very recent and it was funny to work like this”- Camino.
- Antonio Saura. http://www.antoniosaura.org/ EN/DE/SP/FR
- José María Yturralde. http://www.yturralde.org/n-obra-es.html SP/EN
- Josep Renau. http://www.uv.es/cultura/c/docs/expjoseprenaucast.htm
- Rafael Alberti. http://www.rafaelalberti.es/ SP/FR/DE/EN/POR/PY
The Madrilenian groove scene:
- “Pepi, Luci, Bom and Other Girls on the Heap” by Pedro Almodovar. (1980.) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepi,_Luci,_Bom http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0081323/
- “Opera Prima” by Fernando Trueba. (1980) http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9C00E0DB103BF935A35752C0A964948260
- “The National shotgun” by (1978) http://www.mediaclick.ro/la-escopeta-nacional/
- “The Wolf” by Miguel Cortois (2004) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wolf
Family and life during the transition period:
- “Big Family” by Fernando Palacios. (1963) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_gran_familia
- Death of Franco: http://www.fotoforum.net/expone/memoria/1975_1.htm
- Resign of Adolfo Suarez: http://www.fotoforum.net/expone/memoria/1981_1.htm
- Terrorist Group ETA: http://www.fotoforum.net/expone/memoria/1982_1.htm
- The Madrilenian groove scene: http://www.fotoforum.net/expone/memoria/1983_1.htm
- Demonstrations from the student community: http://www.fotoforum.net/expone/memoria/1987_1.htm
- Demonstration for the sexual freedom: http://www.fotoforum.net/expone/memoria/1989_1.htm
- Squatter in Madrid: http://www.fotoforum.net/expone/memoria/1990_1.htm