THE XX CENTURY IN SPAIN
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War has been one of the most important periods in the XX century regarding artistic expression. Besides an important bibliography related with the Civil War, we have to emphasize literature, poetry, theatre, cinema and visual arts always stressing specific consequences: distinguished artists and men of letters whom have to live in exile, government censorship and legal prohibitions aiming to adapt artistic expressions to the official rules.
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939 but the starting point was in October 1934, when a social revolution against establishing Communist system (see George Orwell´s book “Tribute to Catalonia”), a military uprising and a general strike broke out together with the split of the two Spains (see Machado´s poem “Songs and Proverbs”): revolutionaries and conservatives, anticlerical and Catholics, left winger revolutionaries and right winger fascists. It was a social, political and military conflict, which has been considerate as a prelude of the Second World War; firstly, because it was used as a testing ground and, secondly, because it included the main European ideologies which would be in conflict soon.
500.000 people were killed, without take into account people dying as a result of malnutrition and disease related to the War. Exile during the post-war period and the removal of the republican ideology and ideas was another consequence. The loss of patrimony is incalculable. Numerous cities and towns were devastated (see Guernica) and more than 20.000 churches were demolished or burnt. The impact of the war was massive: The Spanish economy took decades to recover and emotional repercussions of the war will last until nowadays.
GERMAN RECREATION of this Spanish historic periodArticle made by German Participants.
During the module we took a closer look at Spain under Franco and at the Spanish Civil War.
To us it was inconceivable that fellow countrymen fought against each other. We worked out the differences between a democratic and a dictatorial system and thought about what a dictatorship and a single-party system means for the people living in this country.
We created a poster showing the most important characteristic features of a dictatorship that people in Spain had to suffer during those years.
We also had the opportunity to think about how other citizens feel nowadays, because there are still people living in dictatorial countries that have to cope with such a difficult situation.
“We learned a lot about democracies and dictatorships”.- Anonymous
“In this context we thought about what countries we know which still suffer from dictatorships.”- Anonymous
ITALIAN RECREATION of this Spanish historic periodArticle made by Italian Participants
After having shared the work of our Spanish peers, we decided to focus on Franco’s regime and analyze other European dictatorships during that period. Spain was not the only country living under that regime. Besides Francisco Franco, other two well-known dictators influenced European politics between 1930 and 1940: Hitler in Germany (Nazism) and Mussolini in Italy (Fascism). We all knew and recognized Hitler’s image. Only a few could say the same for Mussolini’s face. No one had ever even heard of Francisco Franco. It was interesting “transforming” three classmates of ours into the three dictators. How? By using make-up. It wasn’t easy but we think we did a good job! Then we gathered and selected some key information about their interests and aims in order to complete our task. We found out some particular features of their lives. Afterwards we created an identity card which we obviously plan to share.
“After reading what it means to live under a dictatorship am wondering why some young people still emulate Mussolini.” Anonymous
“Collect information on Francisco Franco and his dictatorship helped me to understand that often the history of some countries is similar.” Anonymous
SPANISH RECREATION of this Spanish historic periodArticle made by Spanish Participants
Today we did a work on the history of our country, we watched a video about the first period of Franco’s dictatorship and 23F. Then we surffed the net looking for relevant images of that period and we decided to emule the images by ourselves, being in the same position but some decades after. At the end, and thanks to new technologies, we did a colage that was later enriched by comics. It was all very useful because we learned a few things we didn’t know about the history of our country, but at the same time it was fun taking the place of such an important people such as Franco or politicians. The result was very nice and we really enjoyed seeing our faces in these historical photos.
“It was a very fun experience thinking in being a very important person in the history of our country.” – Valery.
“It was very interesting to talk about the Spanish history and it’s consequences, and to revise some important event of the history of our nation.”- David.
- “Portrait of front of Aragon”, “Front of Córdoba” & “Refugees at the Sevilla metro station in Madrid” http://www.museoreinasofia.es/coleccion/coleccion-1/sala-206-3_en.html
- Robert Capa: “Falling Soldier “ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Capa
- “Soldiers of Salamina” Trailer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHnjjpD3MXM
- “Carol´s travel” trailer: SP with EN subtitles. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DI5F8LocyBo
- “Land and liberty” Ken Loach: SP and EN: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5904180592045722602#
- “The Spanish Earth” de Joris Ivens: EN: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIZOQyP8usA
- “A sad trumpet ballad” by Alex de la Iglesia. (2010) http://www.obsessedwithfilm.com/reviews/venice-2010-review-balada-triste-de-trompeta-a-sad-trumpet-ballad.php
- Posters from the Republican side: http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/visfront/vizindex.html
- Siwe: The land is yours. http://www.fundanin.org/Carteles%20del%20POUM.htm
- Carlos Saenz De Tejada: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Carlos_S%C3%A1enz_de_Tejada
- Ignacio Zuloaga: http://pintoresfamosos.juegofanatico.cl/pintores/hispanos/zuloaga-zabaleta.jpg
- Renau: http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/visfront/victoria.html
- Salvador Dalí: “Premonition of the civil war”, 1936: http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=27477, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_Construction_with_Boiled_Beans_(Premonition_of_Civil_War)
- Juan Miró: “Still-Life with Old Shoe” “Help Spain”: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_Mir%C3%B3, http://www.museoreinasofia.es/coleccion/autores-obras.html?id=42